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ECONOMIC IMPACT & INCENTIVE ANALYSIS | Overview | Introduction | Analysis | Multipliers


Input-output accounting describes commodity flows from producers to intermediate and final consumers. The total industry purchases of commodities, services, employment compensation, value added, and imports are equal to the value of the commodities produced.

Purchases for final use (final demand) drive the model. Industries produce goods and services for final demand and purchase goods and services from other producers. These other producers, in turn, purchase goods and services. This buying of goods and services (indirect purchases) continues until leakages from the region (imports and value added) stop the cycle.

These indirect and induced effects (the effects of household spending) can be mathematically derived. The derivation is called the Leontief inverse. The resulting sets of multipliers describe the change of output for each and every regional industry caused by a one dollar change in final demand for any given industry.

Creating regional input-output models require a tremendous amount of data. The costs of surveying industries within each region to derive a list of commodity purchases (production functions) are prohibitive. IMPLAN was developed as a cost-effective means to develop regional input-output models. The IMPLAN accounts closely follow the accounting conventions used in the "Input-Output Study of the U.S. Economy" by the Bureau of Economic Analysis (1980) and the rectangular format recommended by the United Nations.

The IMPLAN system was designed to serve three functions: 1) data retrieval, 2) data reduction and model development, and 3) impact analysis. Comprehensive and detailed data coverage of the entire U.S. by county, and the ability to incorporate user-supplied data at each stage of the model building process, provides a high degree of flexibility both in terms of geographic coverage and model formulation.

IMPLAN allows those trained in its econometric modeling techniques to do the following:

• Develop his/her own multiplier tables;

• Develop a complete set of SAM (Social Accounting Matrix) accounts;

• Change any component of the system, production functions, trade flows, or database;

• Generate type I, II, or any true SAM multiplier internalizing household, government,   and/or investment activities;

• Create custom impact analysis by entering final demand changes;

• Obtain any report in the system to examine the model’s assumptions and calculations.

 There are two components to the IMPLAN system, the software and databases. The databases provide all information to create regional IMPLAN models. The software performs the calculations and provides an interface for the user to make final demand changes.

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